Results of the study on the etiology, clinical symptoms, molecular and analytical aspects, as well as the importance of nourishment for celiac disease were presented and analyzed in the paper. Celiac disease is the gluten enteropathy with the alterations of the mucous membrane of the small intestine that respond to the nongluten-diet treatment. It is one of the most widespread studied autoimmune disease of the small intestine and the stomach that is induced by ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, barley, or rye. A few hypotheses explain the mechanism leading to the destruction of the small intestine villous structure. The increased content of the tissue transglutaminase was found for celiac patients and was suggested to play the key role in celiac etiology. It has been demonstrated that the toxicity of cereals prolamins depends on their structure i.e. amino acid types and sequences in their polypeptide chains. The peptides from Agliadin, whose toxicity was confirmed with in vivo assays, always contain one of the four motifs of amino acid sequences: PSQQ; QQQP; QQPY or QPYP. It was found that properly constructed diet has the basic importance in the preventive treatment of celiac disease. So far, the controversy concerning the toxicity of oat avenin for celiac patients is unsolved.
celiac disease, gliadins, gluten, prolamins, toxic-peptides