The test material were 11 cultivars of winter wheat harvested in the years 1994-1996 (Begra, Panda, Olcha, Almari, Gama, Wilga, Emika, Kobra, Roma, Jawa, Juma), coming from the Strain Test Station at Tarnów Śląski. In the cultivars tested there was found a variability in the contents of total protein, SDS – soluble and insoluble protein, as well as of high-molecular glutenin. Their flour appeared to differ in the activity of proteolytic enzymes and alpha-amylase measured by the falling number. The falling number was proved to have been correlated with the contents of total protein and soluble pentosans. The wheat cultivars were more differentiated by soluble pentosans than by the insoluble and total ones. Different, too, was the content of starch in them, the latter having been significantly correlated with total and insoluble protein contents.