The review presents results of current oat breeding programmes completed in Poland, as well as abroad, in the last decade. Also, the future prospects of oat breeding were analysed. New naked cultivars of oat were described in detail and the need to increase their yields, resistance to lodging and diseases was erftphasised. Moreover, there is an urgent need to improve their grain protein and fat content. In conclusion, the review recommends two major targets for breeding of naked oats: high (3-glucan cultivars for human consumption and low (3-glucan cultivars for animal feeding.