Background. Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Carcinogenesis is a multistage and complex process that may be partially reversible. In the process of carcinogenesis, numerous metabolic pathways associated with normal cell growth and division are disturbed. An important role in the prevention of cancer is played by a lifestyle characterized by maintaining a healthy weight, an appropriate level of physical activity and increased consumption of food with anti-cancer properties.
Results and conclusion. The paper presents the latest literature reports on the pathogenesis of cancer and the impact of diet on the risk of its occurrence. In addition, known models of carcinogenesis and their impact on the development of knowledge in the field of oncology are discussed. Current recommendations on nutrition in cancer prevention, developed by the American Cancer Research Fund, are also presented. The aim of this paper is also to present the role of selected bioactive components of plant origin in cancer prevention. The paper presents basic information on carcinogenesis and the dietary anticancerogen mechanisms . Individual groups of bioactive compounds showing anticancer activity are discussed: dietary fiber, phenolic compounds, flavonoid phytoestrogens (classified as phenolic compounds) and nonflavonoid compounds, betalains, glucosinolates, phytates and carotenoids. An attempt was made to systematize knowledge on the anticancer properties of these compounds. By altering the diet, the supply of plant-derived bioactive components should be increased, which, through various mechanisms, have the ability to inhibit various phases of tumor formation and reduce the supply of potential carcinogens.
cancer, prevention, carcinogenesis, bioactive components, nutrition patterns, obesity