Fish and fish products are an important part of a balanced human diet. Despite the fact that fish have an excellent nutritional value, they can also be a source of heavy metals. The objective of the research study was to determine the impact of species and living environment of fish on the concentration of lead in muscle tissue of fish, as well to estimate the lead intake from a 100 g portion of meat with reference to the benchmark dose lower confidence limit (BMDL) for children and adults. The research study included the following six species of fish living in different environments: marine fish: herring and cod; wild freshwater fish: roach and perch; and aquaculture fish: rainbow trout and carp. The concentration of lead was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry using a SpectrAA 880Z (Varian) spectrometer. A one-way analysis of variance was applied to analyze the results. The significant impact was proved of species and living environment on the concentrate of lead in muscle tissue of fish. The significantly (p < 0.05) lowest concentrate of Pb (0.0429 mg kg-1) was determined in the muscles of fish from aquaculture. However, the muscles of marine and wild fresh water fish had a similar Pb concentration level (respectively, 0.1419 and 0.1644 mg kg-1). The highest concentrate of lead was determined in the muscles of herring (0.2349 mg kg-1) and roach (0.2145 mg kg-1), and the lowest amount in the muscles of rainbow trout and carp (about 0.043 mg kg-1). It was estimated that a portion of herring and roach meat (as regards the to BMDL01) to be safe for children should not exceed 75 g and 82 g, respectively.
marine fish, freshwater fish, aquaculture fish, lead, BMDL