Background. In addition to the long-known white and red varieties of common wheat, colored forms of wheat have emerged in recent decades, characterized by purple, blue and black grains. The anthocyanins they contain belong to the flavonoid group and are responsible for the color of grains. Purple wheat grain contains anthocyanins in the pericarp layer, blue wheat in the aleurone layer, and black wheat has anthocyanins distributed in both layers. Anthocyanins are bioactive components that can act as a functional component of foods or shape their functional characteristics, protecting against diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Colored wheat is also a good source of phenolic compounds other than anthocyanins, carotenoids, minerals, especially iron and zinc, and vitamins.
Results and conclusion. Colored wheat is a good technological raw material, not dissimilar to the previously used varieties of bread wheat and durum wheat. It is suitable for the production of bread, pastries, snack products and pasta, and even beer, soy sauce or vinegar. The stability of anthocyanins from colored wheat is reduced when high temperatures are used, but the overall antioxidant content of the resulting products is still high. Nutritional studies have confirmed the beneficial effects of food products obtained from colored wheat on consumer health. It is expected that products made from colored wheat varieties may become fashionable functional foods in many countries. The key challenge of large-scale commercialization is to generate market and consumer awareness. The purpose of this article was to present the current state of knowledge on anthocyanins found in colored wheat grains and their importance in potential food applications of this cereal.
wheat, plant colorants, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidants, health-promoting food