Progress in fractionation methods, studies on the molecular structure of gluten proteins and enlargement of knowledge about them in the field of genetics enabled the elaboration of their new classification. The new classification of gluten proteins is based on their composition and structure rather than on differences in solubility. According to this classification, gliadins as well as glutenins are called prolamins. Such defined prolamins are divided into 3 groups based on the amino acid sequence and chromosomal location of the structural genes coding the synthesis of the adequate proteins. There are: HMW prolamins, poor in sulfur and rich in sulfur prolamins. The studies proved that variability in location of the stuctural genes controlling the synthesis of gluten proteins have influence on changes in breadmaking quality of wheat. Trials on genetic control of their synthesis by manipulation and expression of adequate gene may be useful in improving breadmaking quality of wheat.