FOOD. Science. Technology. Quality

Food. SCIENCE. Technology. Quality

Food. Science. TECHNOLOGY. Quality

Food. Science. Technology. QUALITY




Effect of production season on basic chemical composition and content of macro- and microelements in cow’s and goat’s milk


The objective of the research study was to compare the chemical composition and content of macroand microelements in cow’s and goat’s milk taking with emphasis on the production season. The research involved 134 milk samples collected from Simmental cows and 168 from differently coloured goats of no breed. The samples were collected in a spring-summer and autumn-winter season. In the milk analyzed, the following was determined: contents of fat, protein, casein, lactose, dry matter and urea, as well as active acidity (pH value), somatic cell count, and content of selected macro- (K, Ca, Na, Mg) and microelements (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn). It was shown that the cow’s milk was characterised by a significantly higher content of basic components. It contained higher amounts (at p ≤ 0.01) of dry matter (by 0.96 %), protein (by 0.38 %) including casein (by 0.17 %), and lactose (by 0.40 %), as well as more fat (by 0.27 % at p ≤ 0.05). However, the goat’s milk proved to be a more valuable (p ≤ 0.01) source of K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Mn. The production season was a significant factor to differentiate the milk yield and the content of basic components. The goats produced significantly (p ≤ 0.01) more milk in the spring-summer season; however, the content of major milk components was higher in the autumn-winter season. In the case of cows, the production season had a significant effect solely on the daily yield (higher in the spring-summer season). As regards cytology, the quality of milk from the two species was lower in the autumn-winter season. The cow’s milk contained significantly more mineral elements (except for copper) in the spring-summer season. Such unequivocal tendencies were not found in the goat’s milk.


cow’s milk, goat’s milk, chemical composition, macro- and microelements, production season