FOOD. Science. Technology. Quality

Food. SCIENCE. Technology. Quality

Food. Science. TECHNOLOGY. Quality

Food. Science. Technology. QUALITY




Effect of initial infusion with calcium ions on some selected properties of dried apples


During technological processes, the quantity of nutrients in raw materials decreases, thus, technologists are forced to develop a method to adjust those losses. Enriching food with nutrients refers both to the substances naturally occurring in it and to the components naturally absent in it. Infusion is one of the methods of enriching food with nutrients. The objective of the study was to research into the possibility of modifying textural properties of dried apple fruits using initial tissue infusion with calcium ions. The infusion process was carried out at an atmospheric and a decreased pressure, using a 1, 3, and 5 % solution of calcium lactate. Then, the material was convectively dried to get a constant mass at a temperature of 70ºC. Textural properties were determined based on a braking test of dried apples and a squeezing test of rehydrated material. The dried apples were sensory analyzed; the analysis comprised the assessment of colour, smell, taste, hardness, and general sensory impressions received whilst assessing all the above indicated parameters of the samples. The braking test proved that the infusion and the increased content of calcium in the samples did not significantly impact the mechanical properties of the dried material. Based on the squeezing test, it was found that the material infused at a decreased pressure with a higher content of calcium showed a higher value of squeezing work. The presence of calcium ions in the tissue caused the smell and taste to be lower rated, and, although the colour and hardness were higher rated, the general rating of the dried materials infused at a reduced pressure was lower. The sensory evaluation did not confirm the texture measurements taken using measuring instruments, which did not detect significant changes occurring in the parameters measured.


infusion, drying, apple, breaking test, squeezing test, calcium