Background. Cancer poses a major public health challenge. Cancer treatment is expensive, burdened with many side effects, and in the case of some types of cancer, ineffective. This is related to the high degree of complexity of metabolic disorders accompanying the growth of neoplastic tissue. Therefore, special attention is paid to primary prevention, the aim of which is to reduce the risk of disease. Primary prevention activities focus on reducing exposure to modifiable risk factors, which include e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption, low physical activity and poor diet.
Results and conclusion. The paper presents literature reports on the protective effect of bioactive compounds of plant origin against the development of cancer. Individual groups of compounds such as fibre, stilbenes, carotenoids, glucosinolates, betalains, phytitians, flavonoids, isoflavones and anthocyanins were characterized. The anti-carcinogenic properties of bioactive ingredients are discussed, taking into account the molecular mechanisms underlying their action. Particular attention was paid to the sources of compounds with anticancer activity present in food and the way these substances act on the processes of growth and migration of cancer cells. In addition, the results of experiments using in vitro and in vivo models as well as case-control trials with human participants are presented.
cancer, prevention, bioactive ingredients, molecular mechanisms, antioxidants