FOOD. Science. Technology. Quality

Food. SCIENCE. Technology. Quality

Food. Science. TECHNOLOGY. Quality

Food. Science. Technology. QUALITY




Starch from immature cereal kernels as an improver of bread


The big starch grains of type A >10 p,m in diameter are synthesised in cereal kernel until it reaches the early-waxy phase of maturity. In matured kernels 80% of total starch grains make up small grains of type B. It is known from earlier research that for creating the bread crumb structure big starch grains are needed because they swell and react with denatured gluten. To improve the above mentioned proportions 5 and 10% of wheat, rye and barley starches were added to the baking of wheat breads from flour type 550. The starches were separated from kernels harvested in early and late-waxy phases. All breads were baked by direct method according to the same recipe. The volume of baked breads was measured, the sensory evaluation done and the texture profile of bread crumb was performed by TA-XT2 analyser. During three day storage hardness, springiness, cohesivness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience of bread crumb were estimated. Starch additives did not affect the organoleptic value and the largest volume displayed breads with 3% starch additive from kernels in early-waxy phase of maturity irrespective of cereal species. The origin and amount of added starch did not influence the texture parameters of bread with the exception of crumb hardness. All breads with starch additives were characterized by lower crumb hardness on the day baking and during three day storage in comparison with the standard bread. The most advantageous was an addition of 3 % of wheat and rye starches originating from kernels reaped in early-waxy phase of maturity. High resistance of such starch grains to swelling and pasting may have been responsible for that result (confirmed by DSC examination). Similar results can be obtained, for starch from mature kernels, only with the usage of certain inhibiting starch swelling substances in dough making. Usage of starches from wheat and rye kernels reaped in early-waxy phase of maturity eliminates addition of starch swelling inhibitors. The starch originating from grains of the early-waxy phase of maturity can be used as natural bread improver.