On the basis of literature data, potential wholesome activity of biologically active non-nutritive compounds of diets (BANS), belonging to the group of phytochemicals, e.g. polyphenols, phytates, sulphates, glucosinolates and protease inhibitors, was discussed. Moreover, the intake of those compounds in a common Polish diet was characterized. The results of numerous studies in vitro and less numerous ones carried out in vivo indicate that BANS can play an important role in decreasing the risk of civilization diseases, including ischaemic heart disease and neoplasm. It was stated that hitherto data on the intake and preventive action of average amounts of BANS consumed are scant and urgently need further studies.