The objective of the study was to assess the physicochemical properties of meat from young bulls of three native breeds: Polish Red (PR), White-Backed (WB), Polish Black-and-White (PBW) and to compare them with the properties of meat from young Simmental (SIM) and Polish Holstein-Fresian (PHF) breed bulls. The animals were fed in the same farms using a semi-intensive system, the feed consisted primarily of plants grown on permanent grasslands. The following parameters of the meat samples taken from carcasses of 50 young bulls (10 samples of each breed) were measured or assessed on the 2nd and 7th day post mortem: pH, electrical conductivity, colour (CIE L*a*b*), shear force and shear energy, water holding capacity (natural drip and thermal drip), TBARS values and content of haem pigments. Significantly higher pH values of the meat from the young bulls of PR breed were reported on the 2nd day post mortem compared to the WB and PBW breed bulls, and on the 7th day post mortem compared to all other breeds analyzed (5.73 vs. 5.51 – 5.52). The meat of young bulls of SIM and PHF breeds showed significantly higher cooking losses on the 7th day post mortem. (31.6 % and 31.8 %) compared to the 3 native breeds (28.1 – 28.9 %). The lowest shear force and shear energy were reported in the meat from young bulls of PHF and PBW breeds on the 2nd day post mortem (84.9 N and 0.31 J; 89.0 N and 0.34 J) and on the 7th day post mortem (58.8 N and 0.23 J; 58.3 N and 0.27 J). The meat of PHF and SIM young bulls was characterized by a significantly (P≤0.01) lower content of haem pigments (133 and 149 ppm) and a higher lightness on the 2nd day post mortem (L* = 40.8 and 42.8) and on the 7th day post mortem (L* = 41.9 and 42.9). On the 2nd and 7th day post mortem, the colour of the meat of young bulls of PR breed was characterized by the significantly (p ≤ 0.01) highest percent content of redness (a* = 24.8 and 27.1) and the significantly lowest percent content of yellowness (b* = 0.9 and 2.6). The highest oxidative stability of intramuscular fat was found on the 2nd and 7th day post mortem in the meat of young bulls of SIM breed (0.24 and 0.25 mg MDA kg-1) and of the native PR breed (0.24 and 0.27 mg MDA kg-1).
cattle, native breeds, young bulls, meat quality