The objective of the study was to determine the effect of milk origin (breed of cows) and applied type of salt (calcium and sodium ions) on the selected functional properties of whey proteins essential while producing foods. Particular attention was given to the rheological properties (including the gel-forming properties and texture of gels: hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness), which determine the usefulness of whey proteins as an additional component in dairy products and majorly impact the choices made by consumers. There were determined the basic chemical composition (content of total protein, fat, lactose, and dry matter) and the concentration of some selected whey proteins contained in whey, and, next, in the permeates and retentates obtained, through the process of micro- and ultra-filtration, at different stages of separating and thickening the solutions of whey proteins. The hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness of gels were determined using a texture profile analysis, whereas their mechanical properties (values of storage and loss moduli as well as apparent viscosity) were analyzed using oscillatory rheometry. Differences were proved to exist between the values of the analyzed texture parameters depending on the breed of cows the milk was from. The gels obtained from whey proteins derived from the Jersey cows’ milk, compared to the gels from whey proteins from the milk of Black-White variety of the Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, were characterized by a lower hardness and a lower adhesiveness, and by a higher cohesiveness. The cow breed and the type of salt applied impacted the values of storage and loss moduli of the whey proteins gels analyzed.
whey proteins, gelling properties, gel texture