Ensuring food safety is currently one of the most important missions of many internationally active institutions. Their activities include the cooperation in the field of controlling and analysing the quality of food products in order to protect consumer health and to rationally manage available resources. The presence of biogenic amines in food is a subject raised many times by numerous organizations, both in the context of setting limits of the content of these compounds in food (FDA, EFSA) and pointing out directions of future research (EFSA). If provided with the diet, biogenic amines can cause a number of unfavourable reactions in the body. The occurrence of these compounds in food results mainly from the metabolic activity of microorganisms in the product. Therefore many scientists attempted to create a Biogenic Amine Index as an indicator of the quality and/or freshness of selected products (mainly meat and fish), in which the activity of microorganisms is undesirable, contributes to a reduction in the quality of product and therefore reduces its shelf life. Fermented foods are a group of products, where the risk of amine formation is particularly high, but where the presence and growth of microorganisms constitute a basis of the process of producing them. While being a potential threat, the microorganisms can become allies in reducing the content of biogenic amines in fermented foods. A good strategy is to select starter cultures with known properties and/or to appropriately modulate the metabolism of microorganisms by adding plant substances and ensuring optimal environmental conditions.
biogenic amines, Biogenic Amine Index, food safety, fermented food